DMK-41 Images of the Moon, 20 Aug., 2011

The following lunar images were all taken on the morning of August 20, 2011, with a DMK41 monochrome camera (1280x960 pixels) through a Meade 12-inch LX-200 mounted on a Losmandy GEM mount.  A TeleVue 2.5X Powermate mounted on a Crayford auxiliary focuser extended the focal length to between 7500 and 8000 millimters. The seeing started out poor (about average for the San Antonio, Texas, area).  But around 5:30 AM, the seeing quickly improved until it became the best I have ever seen from urban San Antonio.  After about a half hour, the door closed and seeing degraded again.  But in that time I secured the highest resolution lunar images I have ever taken. Each image is the best 200 frames stacked from an 800-frame .AVI processed in RegiStax 6. Each image was then enlarged 125% in Photoshop to allow easier viewing of fine detail.  Processing artifacts from Registax tended to make craters smaller than a certain size all look like concentric craters, thus the central shadow of many small craters in these images has been darkened to hide the artifact. 


Anaxagoras



Anaxagoras and W. Bond

20 Aug., 2011

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Located north of the landmark crater Plato, the two ruined Nectarian Epoch craters Goldschmidt and W. Bond span 124 and 163 kilometers each on the northern shore of Mare Frigoris. The fresher 53-kilimeter Copernican Epoch crater Anaxagoras lies within Goldschmidt.






Archamedes



Archamedes

20 Aug., 2011

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Archamedes lies on the eastern shore of Mare Imbrium and dates from the creation of the Imbrium Basin. The interior of the 85-kilometer crater subsequently filled with the same lavas that formed Mare Imbrium, leaving a classic “walled-plain” crater. The crater's smooth floor shows several dozen near-kilometer sized craterlets indicating the reduced meteoric impact rate since the the end of the Nectarian Epoch. North of Archamedes, the Spitzbergen Mountains protrude through plains of Marew Imbrium.

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Autolycus



Aristilus, Autolycus, Hadley Rille

20 Aug., 2011

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Immediately east of Archamedes lies the twin craters Aristilus (top) and Autolycus (bottom). Being 56- and 41-kilometers in size, both craters are similar in size but different in form. The younger Aristilus exhibits the classic complex crater form with slumped terraced walls and a central peak. The floor of older Autolycus has been modified and uplifted by the same volcanic action that created Mare Imbrium. Ejecta thrown from Aristilus has also partially filled Autolycus and obscured the crater's central peak.







Azophi



Azophi

20 Aug., 2011

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When I took this image, I will admit that I was so fascinated by the ruggedness of the terminator that I lost track of where I was on the Moon. Therefore I admit I have not yet identified this area with the exception that it is in the mid-southern central highlands. As the field of view was showing on the computer monitor, I was struck by how similar the terminator appeared to the classic Apollo 8 Christmas broadcast from the Moon in December, 1968.






Blancanus



Blancanus

20 Aug., 2011

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The three large craters central to this image are Blancanus (top), Klaproth (middle) and Casatus (bottom). These approximately 110-kilometer craters are all ancient Nectarian or pre-Nectarian formations that have their central peaks covered by ejecta thrown from neighboring craters and from the Orientale Basin to the west. All three of these craters lie immediately south of the landmark crater Clavius.





Cassini


Cassini

20 Aug., 2011

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Cassini is a 60-kilometer lava-flooded crater tucked on the eastern shore of Mare Imbrium to the southeast of Plato. The double craters Cassini A and B on the floor of Cassini give the crater an unusual “bug-eyed” appearance. To the north, the Alpine Valley cuts through the Alps Mountains. The 134-kilometer long valley is a geologic formation known as a graben formed by faults cutting through the Alps Mountains.






Copernicus


Copernicus

20 Aug., 2011

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Copernicus has been called the "King of lunar craters". At 95 kilometers across,it is not the largest crater on the Moon, but its isolated location on Mare Insularum and its extensive bright ray system radiating hundreds of kilometers from Copernicus makes it one of the most distinctive craters on the visible side of the Moon. Estimated to be about 800 million years old, Copernicus formed after the major volcanism on the Moon had ceased, thus the huge crater retains unmodified and shows its classic form with a central peak.






Cordillera


Cordillera and Rook Mountains

20 Aug., 2011

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This view along the limb of the Moon is actually turned 90 degrees clockwise. The view is along the western limb of the Moon and shows the double row of mountains, the Cordillera (near) and Rook (far) ranges, that form the prominent impact rings surrounding Mare Orientale. Also visible are the dark lava fields of Lacus Veris beyond the Rook Mountains and Lacus Autumni to the right in front of the Cordillera Mountains.






Deluc


Deluc and Zach

20 Aug., 2011

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This field is anchored by the landmark crater Moretus protruding into the lower left while part of Clavius lies at the upper right. 99-kilometer wide Curtis lies at the lower center with Zach B, Zach A, and 73-kilometer Zach extending in a chain to the upper right.






Gemma


Gemma Frisius

20 Aug., 2011

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This rugged highland area lies north of Maurolycus. The smooth-floored crater at the top is 65-kilometer Nectarian Epoch crater Apianus. The irregular-shaped deeply-shadowed crater at the bottom is 90-kilometer Gemma Frisius. This pre-Nectarian Epoch crater has been extensively modified by subsequent bombardment during the Nectarian Epoch.






HadleyRille


Hadley Rille

20 Aug., 2011

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Hadley Rille is the winding snake-like channel at the center of the field where the shore of Mare Imbrium laps at the base of the Appenine Mountains. This area is to the southeast of the crater Archamedes which protrudes into the upper left. Hadley Rille was the landing zone for Apollo 15 in 1971.






Hyginus


Hyginus Rille

20 Aug., 2011

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The dark channel at the upper center is the 226-kilometer long Hyginus Rille which crosses the plains of MareVaporum. The channel bisects the 10-kilometer diameter volcanic pit of Hyginus crater. The fractures at the far left are the Triesnecker Rilles.




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Lade


Lade

20 Aug., 2011

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This rugged area along the terminator lies at the center of the Moons visible face. No landmark craters are visible, but the inverted horseshoe-shaped crater at the upper left is the ruined pre-Nectarian crater Lade, which spans 55 kilometers.






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Lilius


Lilius

20 Aug., 2011

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This heavily cratered highland area to the east of the landmark crater Maginus is devoid of noted craters. The deeply shadowed terminator accentuates ruggedness of the area. The peaked crater to the lower right of center is 55-kilometer Lilius.






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Maginus


Maginus

20 Aug., 2011

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The heavily ruined pre-Nectarian crater Maginus lies just to the southeast of Tycho. Spanning 168 kilometers, the crater does look as wide as it is because of extensive bombardment degradation of its rim and the filling of its floor with ejecta from later nearby impacts. Only a hint of Maginus central peak protrudes through the craters filled in floor.






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Manilius


Manilius

20 Aug., 2011

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Low sun elevation makes the region around the 41-kilometer diameter crater Manilius appear much rougher than it is. After the craters formation billions of years ago it was surrounded by lava flows that formed Mare Vaporum near the visible center of the Moon. Manilius is bordered to the north by lava flows that created Lacus Dolores, or the Lake of Suffering, and to the east by Lacus Lenitatis, or the Lake of Tenderness. These lake areas are lava flows from neighboring Mare Serenitatis to the east.






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Maurolycus


Maurolycus

20 Aug., 2011

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Captured just at sunset, this image shows the rim of 117-kilometer Maurolycus protruding into sunlight while the floor of the crater is shadowed by the oncoming two-week long lunar night. Maurolycus itself is a circular crater, but it overlies another older crater whose rim protrudes from under the southern rim of Maurolycus, resulting in an elliptical rim. The shadowed crater t the lower left is 77-kilometer Clairaut.






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Moretus


Moretus

20 Aug., 2011

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Moretus is a classic complex crater with collapsed terraced walls and a prominent central peak. It is an analog of Copernicus which lies farther north, but in this case 117-kilometer diameter Moretus lies at 70 degrees south lunar latitude. This allows an oblique view across the crater as opposed to the vertical view of Copernicus. This view allows a better appreciation of the craters depth and vertical structure.






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Plato


Plato

20 Aug., 2011

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Plato is a 104-kilometer diameter crater embedded in the Alps Mountains which form the northern rim of the Imbrium Basin. Platos startlingly flat back floor led its being known as the Greater Black Lake in the early era of telescopic lunar exploration. Initially when it was formed nearly four billion years ago, Plato likely looked very much like Copernicus. Its floor was subsequently flooded by the same lava flows that pushed through fractures in the lunar surface to create the flat plains of Mare Imbrium to the south of Plato.






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Ptolomaeus


Ptolemaeus area

20 Aug., 2011

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This broad mosaic of prominent craters in the Moons central highlands was created from separate images of various craters. Only after the imaging session was it noted that there was sufficient overlap between images to allow them to be stitched together. Five prominent craters are highlighted here: the broad flat craters at the far left from top to bottom lie Ptolemaues, Alphonsus, and Arzachel. At the center top is Hipparchus with the fresher crater Horrocks imbedded within it, while more defined Albategnius lies at the lower center with the smaller crater Klein imbedded within it. This broad view is useful for seeing the relative age differences between craters. Hipparchus is an ancient highly ruined crater that has been degraded and filled in by subsequent impacts. Its floor bears witness to many impacts that are absent from the younger Albategnius to the south. The same age progression can be seen at the left with Ptolemaeus being lava flooded and covered with dozens of small craterlets while Arzachel to the south remains relatively fresh appearing.






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Concon


Rima Conon

20 Aug., 2011

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Three well-known rilles, or channels created by volcanic or tectonic action, are seen in this view near the 22-kilometer crater Conon (center) nestled in the Appenine Mountains to the east of Mare Imbrium. Hadley Rille snakes along the edge of the Appenines at the top. The less defined and more linear Rima Bradley is at the lower left. Rima Conon snakes to the right.






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Tycho


Tycho

20 Aug., 2011

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Tycho is one of the youngest large craters on the Moon, having formed about 108 million years ago. Because of its relative geological youth, the structure of Tycho is still pristine. Tycho also possesses a well developed ray system that extends halfway across the face of the Moon. Although only 88 kilometers in diameter, Tychos ray system acts a pointer drawing attention to the crater.






Werner


Werner and Aliacensis

20 Aug., 2011

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Located in the highlands to the east of Mare Nubium, the similar-sized caters Werner (top) and Aliacensis show different geologic forms due to their age difference. 82-kilometer diameter Aliacensis dates from the Nectarian Epoch and is thus one of the older craters on the Moon. Its floor has been filled in and smoothed over with ejecta from other nearby impacts and the crater walls are degraded. 71-kilometer diameter Werner appears sharper and more rugged as it dates from the later Erastothenian Epoch and has not suffered as much degradation from meteoric infall.






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